TLR2 Antibody – A Transmembrane Cell-Surface Receptor

TLR2 antibody – Toll like receptor 2, which is also known as TLR-2, or CD282 is a transmembrane protein that is encoded by the TLR2 gene. This surface protein is present on a number of leukocytes, white blood cells, such as macrophages, microglia, schwann cells, dendritic cells, B-cells and T-cells.

This transmembrane protein plays an important role in the recognition of foreign bodies and the innate immune response to those pathogens. Toll receptors are activated by highly specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are specific to bacterial, fungal, viral and certain endogenous substances. As a result, the TLR2, which are single pass trans-membrane cell-surface receptors, are a key function in the activation of innate immunity.

In most cases, the interaction between receptor and PAMPs will result in the phagocytosis of bound molecules and in cellular activation. This will activate macrophages in addition to dendritic cells to assume non-specific immune defense and cytokine release. Moreover, it will activate B-cells to begin antibody production and formation of pathogen specific antibodies.

Toll like receptors (TLR) are well preserved from drosophila to humans and are structurally and functionally similar. They both recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are expressed on infectious agents. It then creates cytokines, which are necessary for the progress of efficient immunity. Consequently, the mixture of different TLRs exhibits different patterns of appearance.

TLR2 is one of the most important receptor of the innate immune system and is an element of the defense against microbial organisms. TLR2 is activated through both internal and external signals (microbial cell wall components). The TLR2 has an important function in pathogen detection for inflammatory conditions that include ischemia reperfusion injury, cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and is relevant to Alzheimer’s disease.

One of the most common neurological diseases is Alzheimer’s, which is the most common form of dementia and accounts for up to 80% of all cases. The symptoms cause problems with thinking, memory and behavior and usually develop over time in old age, and eventually start to have negative consequences on daily lives. The majority of people with Alzheimer’s disease are 65 and over. They will ultimately not have the capacity to have a dialogue with anybody such as family or friends, and unable to react to their environment. Therefore, it could potentially lead them into dangerous situations if the proper care or treatment was not provided for them. Those that are unfortunate to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease live on average eight years after they are diagnosed, although this can depend on their health conditions. Moreover, Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States of America. Thus, TLR2 antibodies have become a staple of any research lab investigating causes and possible treatments for this devastating disease.

The antibody can be tested on a range of applications such as WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-ELISA. This is used to test the antibody on a large selection of model species such as mouse, rat, sheep, cow, dog, chicken, pig, and Human.

Want to Have a Candida Antibodies Test With ImuPro?

Candida antibodies tests are necessary to determine if the body needs any external medications to recover from fungal infection. The pathogen has the ability to self-stabilise itself and not allow the gut microbiota to recover and re-establish the normal metabolic environment. It consolidates its position in the digestive tract and further damages the inner lining resulting in the release of food and other particles into the blood stream. The leaked gut is the primary reason for food intolerance and build-up of gas and subsequent complications.

The type of treatment to be prescribed depends on finding how the body’s immune system is tackling the problem. Measuring the presence of immunoglobulin proteins such as IgG in the gut flora help establish the answer to this question and ascertain the treatment measures to be taken to address the proliferation. A chronic case such as Candidiasis where the fungi has permeated into the mucosal tissues increases the level of IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies. In such instances, their levels are found to be considerably higher than what would have been under normal circumstances.

All Candida related antibody and antigen tests should be checked by a practising physician and evaluated in relation to the person’s medical history. As in the case of all tests, the results are dependent on various factors such as past infections, the presence of the protein in the affected tissues and many more. For instance in the case of IgG, the tests would not be positive in case the person is suffering from illness and already has a high incidence of the antibodies in his serum. In certain cases, the IgG may persist several years after the infection has been completely eradicated. This is mostly due to the immunoglobulin’s ability to persist for a long period of time.

IgA is predominant in the mucosal tissues though it represents less than 20% of the proteins found in the human serum. A high incidence of IgA can be associated with mucosal epithelial, tracheobronchial, and genito-urinary infections of Candida. IgM is found in the intravascular cells and is the predominant immunoglobulin in early infections. Later illnesses may show a lesser level of this antibody as compared to the earlier ones. Besides these testing that may or may not prove a positive, antigen checks help determine if the proliferation has overwhelmed the gut flora. The presence of Candida antigen in the serum is a very positive indicator that the fungi has already entrenched itself in the gut. However, the absence of the antigen is an indeterminate result and cannot be taken as a positive sign that indicates the absence of the pathogen.

An ImuPro test helps to find all the allergies that affect patients. ImuPro tests analyse the patient’s reaction to over 271 food varieties and help clearly define the sources of any allergy.

Antiphospholipid Antibodies – Cause of Autoimmune Disease?

Antiphospholipid antibodies (or APA) are a type of protein produced by white blood cells. Antibodies serve to protect us from foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses. Sometimes when the immune system is activated and starts producing these antibodies, it may come to an abnormality, causing it to keep producing them even after the infection has been removed. That way, the antibodies will continue to attack the healthy cells in the body, causing damage and triggering other autoimmune disease.

After we look at some basic facts

Antiphospholipid antibodies – types and tests

Antiphospholipid antibodies cause the narrowing of blood vessels and blood clotting (or thrombosis). Antiphospholipid binds to phospholipid (fat derivates, lipids containing phosphorus, composed of fatty acids and a simple molecule). There are a few kinds of antiphospholipid antibodies, which are measured in order to make a diagnosis:

  • Lupus anticoagulant – antibodies against phospholipids that prevent blood clotting. These are measured directly from the plasma, by Russell viper venom time (RVVT) and the Kaolin cephalin clotting test.
  • Anticardiolipin antibody – antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases; measured by a procedure called ELISA.
  • Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 – predictors of arterial thrombosis. This test is used if the first two tests (for lupus anticoagulants or anticardiolipin antibodies) were negative.
  • Sometimes anti-prothrombin and antimitochondrial antibodies are measured as well.

Antiphospholipid antibodies – treatments
High levels of these antibodies are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). Usually tests need to be repeated several times before the full diagnosis is given, because sometimes they can show false negative results (especially during the thrombosis). Most people, who test positively on the antiphospholipid antibodies tests, do not require any special treatment.

Antiphospholipid antibodies – who should get treatment?
However, patients who have an IgG anticardiolipin antibody of a moderate to high quantity are considered high risk and should get treatment. IgG anticardiolipin antibody is an important predictor of thrombosis and pregnancy complications. Treatments used, include:

  • Aspirin is most commonly prescribed in low doses to all patients that require treatment and is recommended to be taken during pregnancy.
  • Anticoagulation therapy with Coumadin, for patients with thrombosis.
  • Antimalarials (e.g. hydroxychloroquin), for patients with lupus. They also have antiplatelet effects.
  • Heparin is used before a surgery, biopsy, during pregnancy and six weeks after the childbirth.
  • Corticosteroids are administered from the second trimester during pregnancy, in moderate doses.

Antiphospholipid antibodies can be found even in healthy people; and it is not completely known why these antibodies are produced in most cases. Sometimes they may be triggered by an infection of certain drugs. Presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood does not mean a person is going to develop an illness, provided a healthy life style.

The presence of these proteins is now pinpointed as one of the main potential factors in many autoimmune conditions, but as we mentioned some news in the field are offering hope to people crippled by autiimmunity. I am talking about a holistic protocll known as the Norton protocol.

Learn more by visiting the home page of Norton protocol as well as get a more detailed information about antiphospholipid antibodies.

Anti-Mitochondrial Antibodies in Autism – A Marker for Treatment?

Recent focus on new treatments for Autistic Spectrum disorders have zeroed in heavily on the immune component of this disease. Physicians around the world are becoming more and more convinced that Autism may be triggered by some autoimmune process leading to damage of the body’s own neurological system.

Quite a few studies have pointed to aberrant immune markers found more commonly in autistic children compared to normal healthy children, but most of these markers have never made it to the masses, instead their access was strictly for research.
However that now has changed.

A few years ago researchers discovered that a protein called Neurotensin was found extremely elevated in Autistic Children. They showed that this peptide released mitochondrial DNA into the extracellular space (outside the cell), which acted as an autoimmune trigger.

The mitochondria is basically the “power house” of the cell. If its function becomes abnormal, the cells no longer have the energy to function properly, thus leading to either cell death or severely limited function. Either way the cells with the damaged mitochondrial don’t function well. Neurons are very sensitive to mitochondrial damage, having a smaller amount compared to other cells requiring large amounts of energy, such as muscles.

The mitochondria has its own DNA content separate from our own cells. If this mitochondrial DNA was released somehow into the extracellular space, the body would then react to it as if it was foreign, like a virus or bacterial, creating an immune response. Well that’s exactly what Neurotensin was causing. Studies showed that when Neurotensin was elevated mitochondrial DNA was found outside in the extracellular space.

Recently in the Journal of Neuroinflammation researchers took it a step further. Since Neurotensin is not commercially available they decided to test markers that were. They also wanted to determine if this extracellular mitochondrial DNA was actually causing an immune response. This way parents may be able to definitely decide if their child’s immune system was attacking the mitochondria.

Enter anti-mitochondrial antibody type II, a marker used for primary biliary chirrosis.

Researchers found that this antibody was significantly elevated in Autistic children as compared to children not affected with Autism, effectively demonstrating that many children suffering from Autism were reacting to their own mitochondria. They postulated that this reaction was affecting multiple aspects of the immune system, laying the ground work for potential damage or excessive inflammation.

This is a great study, showing a possible cause and effect process. Anti-mitochondrial antibody is available to test for, with most insurance companies covering it.

If your child has never been tested for the antibody, it may be worthwhile to have your physician order it. Having knowledge that maybe your child is suffering an autoimmune process is huge. It definitely will be a marker I use and will change how I treat my patients.