Antibody Engineering For Specific Application

Nowadays pharmaceutical and medicinal biotechnology is an improved section of biotechnology. Production of different developed drugs, vaccines, artificial insulin, etc. are achievements of this section. Antibody engineering is one of the most developed parts of medicinal biotechnology. If an antibody is modified due to a specific application through recombinant DNA technology then it is called antibody engineering. It is also called hybrid antibody or recombinant antibody.

Some steps which are essential for doing antibody engineering are-

1. Development of a design that will prepare the antibody to be used for a specific application that means by which it will bind with a specific antigen.

2. Accumulation of all the DNA sequences that would generate this antibody into a suitable expression vector

3. Introduction of a vector in a myeloma cell line so that the modified antibody gene can express itself

4. Mass culture of the transfected clones containing modified antibody genes of myeloma cell line

5. Harvesting the produced recombinant antibodies. But it should be noticed that the myeloma cell line would not produce any antibody of its own.

Monoclonal antibody that is being used widely as therapeutic agent has been produced by using antibody engineering. For producing monoclonal antibody a myeloma cell line is fused with spleen cell line of mouse which has already immunized with the desired antigen. In this HAT medium is used as culture medium because it contain hypoxanthine, thymine and aminopterin. Unfused hybridoma cell cannot grow in HAT medium due to lack of HGPRT and unfused spleen cell cannot grow infinitely because they have limited life span. After producing monoclonal antibody it is purified by western blotting system. Now a day’s monoclonal antibodies are widely being used in cancer treatment. It is also used for treating autoimmune diseases like infliximab, adalimumab.

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome – Is This the Cause of All Autoimmune Diseases?

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (also APS, phospholipid antibody syndrome, or Hughes syndrome) is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body’s immune system produces antibodies which attack the normal healthy cells. These antibodies called antiphospholipids, can cause blood clots (usually in leg veins, brain), pregnancy complications, loss of consciousness, stroke, or heart attack. Other signs of this illness may include: rashes, migraines, heart problems, and bleeding.

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome – two basic types

There are two types of the syndrome: primary (if there are no other autoimmune diseases present) and secondary (if another autoimmune disease is present, such as lupus for example). When the disease is secondary, the cause is always the primary autoimmune disorder.

If the APS is primary, the cause is not always known. It is suspected to be a combination of: genetics (having a relative with antiphospholipid antibodies), infections (syphilis or hepatitis C), and medications (such as hydralazine for high blood pressure) that may trigger the disease.

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome – conventional treatment approaches

The main goal of the treatment for the condition is to prevent clotting by thinning the blood. Treatments used for this are:

  • Anticoagulants, such as heparin, warfarin, and even aspirin are used as blood thinners
  • Corticosteroids (mainly prednisone) are used to suppress the overactive immune system and reduce inflammation.
  • Intravenous gamma globulin treatment may be prescribed during pregnancy, but it has the same efficacy levels as aspirin and heparin.

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome – rare complications

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome is rare complication of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, in which many blood vessels are affected, as well as many organs (brain, heart, skin, lungs etc.). The treatment involves blood thinners, corticosteroids and plasma exchange therapy.

Other more common complications

  • Stroke – due to the reduced blood flow to the brain.
  • Kidney failure – because of the decreased blood flow to the kidneys.
  • Pregnancy complications – miscarriages, fetal death, premature birth; or high blood pressure during pregnancy.
  • Lung problems – pulmonary embolism or high blood pressure in the lungs.
  • Cardiovascular damage – due to the blood clots in the whole body, which may cause damage to the leg veins and as a result of blood not being able to reach the heart, different heart problems, including a heart attack.

Blood tests:

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies can be detected with certain blood tests, which are usually repeated to complete the diagnosis. These antibodies can also be found in people who don’t develop antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, most likely caused by some infectious diseases (bacterial, viral or by a parasite), or certain drugs (antibiotics, cocaine, etc.).

This condition is now pinpointed as one of the main potential culprits of a number of autoimmune diseases, but some recent advances in the field of autoimmune disease research offer new found hope to people afflicted by this life-altering condition.

You can learn more by visiting the home page of the protocol as well as get a more detailed image about the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

Type 2 Diabetes – Can Low Levels of Antibodies Contribute to the Development of Diabetes?

Scientists at Guandong Medical University and several other research institutions in China and Scotland found low levels of certain types of antibodies in people who had been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. These antibodies stop inflammation, which has a known link to insulin resistance, the cause of Type 2 diabetes.

In November of 2017, the Journal of Inflammation, (London), reported on a study that looked at antibodies to inflammatory molecules in people with Type 2 diabetes. Women had decreased levels of the antibodies called anti-IL6 IgG and anti-IL8 IgG. Both molecules are inflammatory, as is anti-TNF-ALPHA IgG, which was seen in low levels in men. The participants were then given blood sugar lowering drugs for 6 months. HbA1c levels were found to be…

  • lowest in those diabetics with the highest levels of anti-ILALPHA IgG and
  • highest in those with low levels of the antibodies,

although the differences were not statistically significant.

From this information the researchers concluded deficiencies of antibodies to inflammatory molecules probably raises the risk for the development of Type 2 diabetes.

Antibodies are proteins that attach themselves to molecules known as antigens. We usually think of antibodies as connecting themselves to alien organisms, such as bacteria and viruses to enable white blood cells to engulf and kill the invaders.

Inflammation is part of the immune response, but it must fade away after the invaders have been vanquished. The role of antibodies to inflammatory molecules is to stop inflammation.

Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins, and they are composed of three protein chains held together in a Y shape. Five types of antibody are classified according to their species of chains. The chains include…

  • IgG,
  • IgM,
  • IgA,
  • IgE, and
  • IgD.

Inflammation is defined by the five conditions it causes…

  • heat,
  • redness,
  • pain,
  • loss of function, and
  • swelling.

Inflammation in the body is named for the inflamed organ plus the ending “itis.” For instance, inflammation of the skin is called dermatitis, “derma” for skin, and “itis” for inflammation.

Two main classes of drugs are used for fighting inflammation…

  • cortisone which resembles a body hormone, and
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include medications such as aspirin, Tylenol, and Motrin.

Cortisone is a steroid, which works against inflammatory reactions by blocking white blood cells from going to the site where the inflammation takes place. (Not to be confused with steroids used illegally to boost athletic performance).

NSAIDs work against body molecules called prostaglandins, which are also pro-inflammatory.

Peptic Ulcer Helicobacter Pylori – Breath And Antibody Blood Tests

Like the tissue test, the urea breath test makes use of the fact that H. Pylori secretes urease, which converts urea into ammonia, producing carbon dioxide as it does so. You are asked to eat nothing for 12 hours before a breath test and are then given a drink containing urea to which a tiny amount of perfectly safe radiation has been added. Thirty minutes later, a small breath sample is collected. If H. pylori is present in your stomach, the urea is converted into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which is then absorbed and excreted in your breath, along with a tiny amount of radioactivity. This can then be measured With a special machine in the hospital laboratory.

The advantage of the breath test is that it is very straightforward and takes a very short amount of time. Like the biopsy urease test, it is very accurate and confirms that you have active H. pylori infection present at the dine of the test. This also means that, if necessary, the breath test can be performed repeatedly to check whether the bacteria have been eradicated after treatment. The disadvantage of the test, like some other H. pylori tests, is that the result may be inaccurate if you are taking proton pump inhibitor medication. Also the result is not usually available for several days because of the measuring equipment used.

Antibody Blood Test

As with other infections, H. pylori infection trigger the production of specific antibodies in your blood. These can then be looked for with a simple blood test and the presence of these antibodies confirms H. pylori infection. Once your body has produced these antibodies they may persist for many years even after the infection has been eradicated.

For this reason, the blood test is useful for diagnosing infection only in a person who has never had H. pylori treatment, and it cannot be used more than once. The real advantage of the test is that it is very quick and usually available in the GP’s surgery. Unlike the other tests for H. pylori, any drugs that you may be taking do not influence the blood test.