What are Antibodies

Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins are large y-shaped proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens such as viruses and bacteria.

In mammals there are five main types of antibodies including: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. There are 4 IgG and 2 IgA subtypes present in humans.

Antibodies are created by plasma cells which are derived from the B-cells in the immune system. Due to the fact that antibodies exist freely in the bloodstream or bound to cell membranes, they are said to be part of the humoral immune system.
Every different antibody recognizes a specific foreign antigen. This is because the two tips of its “Y” are different to each antibody are allow different antibodies to bind to different foreign antigens. When the antibody binds to a bacteria, it tags the microbe or virus for attack by the immune system such as killer T-cells. Sometimes, antibodies can directly neutralize the foreign body. The production of antibodies by B-cells is the main function of the humoral immune system.

Autoimmune disorders can usually be traced to antibodies which bind the body’s own proteins or epitopes, and these types of antibodies can be detected through serological blood tests. Due to the amazing specificity of antibodies, they have some important practical applications in both medicine for the detection of HIV and other viruses in blood, and in research to purify and detect proteins in the study of molecular biology. For example, currently medicine is using biotechnologically designed monoclonal antibodies which work as an antibody therapy. These methods are being employed recently and are the result of numerous clinical trials in a number of diseases including cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Medical Researchers Need the Best From Antibody Manufacturers

I’ve had a long-standing interest in genetic engineering and longevity related research. In fact since the age of 11 years old, I have always thought that dying is a stupid way to live, and it has always annoyed me the most people think that old age is a normal part of life rather than the disease that it is. Aging in many ways is about our bodies rusting just like iron rusts when exposed to oxygen, the human bodies also is damaged at the genetic level by free radical oxygen molecules. And there are other causes for aging related to the way proteins act in our system, the way junk builds up in our cells, other junk builds up between our cells and how our DNA repair-kit gets damaged through the metabolism of living.

Then there is the issue of antibodies which are also known as immunoglobulins which are gamma globulin proteins found in our bloodstream or other fluids in the body of all vertebrates including people. They are used by our immune system to identify, target and to neutralize or destroy the many foreign objects present at any moment in time including bacteria and viruses.

Aging is a disease, and there is nothing natural or romantic about it. It brings on a long and torturous death by a multitude of painful and serious medical problems and a tremendous loss of quality of life along the way. The nonsense of the Bush government blocking genetic research is thankfully passed, and so America may even begin to catch up a little on the progress made by the rest of the world – though many great minds from the American research community have already migrated to Europe.

Thankfully modern research is now focused on getting to the root cause of each and every known issue that impacts on our health. In my resource box is a link to one antibody manufacturer that already has 11,000 antibodies that it routinely produces for its research clients worldwide as they investigate diseases and formulate drugs and medical treatments and this company releases an extra 200 antibody products a month to keep pace with the needs of researchers. Indeed they claim to have 17,000 additional antibodies in their development pipeline to assist in the global research for the highest quality of life for the rest of us.

Beyond The Obvious: Game-Changing Innovation by Phil McKinney – Neutralizing Corporate Antibodies

“Innovation” is one of the biggest buzzwords of twenty-first century business vernacular. Phil McKinney, author of the new book, “Beyond The Obvious: Killer Questions That Spark Game-Changing Innovation,” presents an in-depth account of what it takes to be truly innovative. He admits that innovation is hard work; and no organization gets it 100 percent right. But, with a disciplined approach, anyone can become more innovative.

McKinney provides a set of Killer Questions that any company can use to hone their innovative mindset. Before you can use those questions, he says you must address your industry and company assumptions, manage the inevitable jolts and neutralize the corporate antibodies. Here, the focus is corporate antibodies.

Corporate antibodies are analogous to the antibodies in our immune system, which attack and destroy possibly harmful foreign objects. “Antibodies” in your organization identify and neutralize forces that threaten to destabilize a company. Much like an organism’s antibodies can damage the very thing they seek to protect (i.e. when they cause the body to reject a transplanted organ); corporate antibodies can stunt a company’s growth by squelching fresh ideas and badly needed unconventional thinkers. McKinney defines four types of corporate antibodies:

1. The Ego Response.

  • “Oh, I already thought of that a long time ago.”
  • “I have something better.”

To get their support, you need to appeal to their ego and solidify their need for personal validation. The key is to show you’re not challenging them. Put their suggestions to work in your idea and pitch. Acknowledge that those suggestions came from them. You’re now giving them a sense of ownership in the concept; and they’ll be more inclined to support your idea.

2. The Fatigued Response.

  • “You’ll never get approval.”
  • “We tried that before.”
  • “It won’t fit our operation.”

This corporate antibody may have pitched ideas of their own, only to have them dismissed. They’re burned out and only half listen to new ideas. As you describe your idea, his biases automatically appear, drawing connections between your new concept and old ideas that didn’t work.

You need to draw out their biases, understand what old experiences they remember; and devise a way to demonstrate that those things aren’t applicable to your new idea. Keep the dialogue going. Ask questions and engage them in your idea by asking their opinions.

Every question you can ask draws the corporate antibody closer to supporting you. They may not realize it, but they’re slowly becoming invested in your idea. You’ll discover an opportunity for a direct question about the viability of your idea. One acknowledgement from them that there is an opportunity that didn’t exist before and you’re ally-bound.

3. The No-Risk Response.

  • “Not enough return on investment.”
  • “We can’t afford that.”

This corporate antibody response understands that doing nothing might not advance their career or company status, but it also avoids any downside risks. “No-risk” is stagnancy that can be hard to diffuse.

The most effective way to gain support is to demonstrate that there is less risk than they think. Explain that supporting the first step of your idea will be low-risk, low-cost and doesn’t commit them to moving on to a bigger investment. Determine how you get people comfortable with risk. Present your concept in small steps. Asking for a few thousand dollars to prove that your customer really needs the product will garner a yes faster than asking for the full budget (and full risk) all at once.

McKinney highlights a subtle truth about innovation. “Sometimes there is no other way around a “no-risk” corporate antibody than a slightly cunning interpretation of the rules, or selective hearing when you’re told no.” He doesn’t advocate lying or deceit, but he says, you’ll find more people who feel empowered to say no than people who feel they’re empowered to say yes. “Don’t lie, but don’t always wait for permission, either. If you believe in your idea and you’re willing to take a risk, put your plan in motion. You can always ask for forgiveness later.”

4. The Comfort Response.

  • “We’ve always done it this way.”
  • “Our customers like it this way.”
  • “Don’t rock the boat.”

Corporate antibodies that stubbornly believe change isn’t desirable or feasible may be confined to outdated thinking about what success looks like. It’s important to understand that while your core mission may stay the same, the way you define success in achieving it may change.

McKinney concludes that corporate antibodies believe that they’re working in the best interest of their employer and customers. They believe they’re serving as a gatekeeper- the last line of defense against people or ideas that might damage the organization. To become allies, you need to convince them that you aren’t a threat and that your idea actually aligns with, and complements their ideals.

He also says “nearly all great ideas require nerve, vision, and guts to get in motion.” If you can’t develop the skills to work around your in-house adversaries, you’ll struggle to ever get your ideas and innovations launched.

Lastly, if you’re constantly shot down by corporate antibodies, you’ll need to decide if being held back by these people is acceptable, or, do you make a bold move to an organization that will support your ideas.

For a list of the World’s 50 Most Innovative Companies, as ranked by Fast Company, visit: http://www.fastcompany.com/most-innovative-companies/2012/full-list.

Overcome Infertility – Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) In Conventional Perspective

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role in treating all kinds of disease and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Antinuclear antibody is defined as specific class of auto antibodies that have the ability to attack structures in the nucleus of cells instead of performing the normal antibody function. It can be detected through blood sample withdrawn from the patient’s vein.

2. Causes
a) Infection and inflammation
Infection and inflammation caused by bacteria or virus speeding up the body immune system function, but in some cases, bacteria and virus induce the immune system to produce antibodies which directed against the tissues of the body.
b) Medication

i) Phenytoin
Pheytoin may increase the risk of production of antinuclear antibody, leading to increasing the risk of malformations and birth defects.
ii) Antibotics
Long term uses of antibody may increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody as the medication causes abnormal reaction to the immune system.
iii) Methyldopa
The medication is used to dilate blood vessels for treating high blood pressure, but long term use of this type of medication may decrease the risk of immune disorder in production of antinuclear antibody.

c) Aging
As we age, the levels of antinuclear antibody increases and in some older adults (5% to 40%) may have mildly elevated levels caused by weakening immune function.
d) Diseases
Some diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may also increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody.

3. How antinuclear antibody effects infertility
Under normal conditions, when a woman becomes pregnant, the white blood cells in her uterus produce protective, blocking antibodies. In case of antinuclear antibody, the white blood cells recognize the fetus as a foreign invasion and attack it, leading to miscarriage.

4. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants,it is a purified preparation derived from animal tissue. It helps to increase the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss.
b) Aspirin
Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory and blood thinner agent, it helps to increase the blood circulating to the reproductive organs, thereby reducing the risk of antinuclear antibody attacking the fetus or the women reproductive tissues. It is recommendation to take 80 mg per day, which is equivalent to a baby aspirin. if necessary.