Overcome Infertility – What is Anti Thyroid Antibodies in Conventional Perspective

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometimes the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti thyroid antibodies affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition

Anti Thyroid Antibodies are defined as abnormal function of antibodies produced by immune system act directly against the thyroid gland. It is caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to abnormal production of certain antithyroid antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal, causing miscarriage by attacking the placental or fetal tissues.

2. Causes

a) Hypothyroidism
Study show that women with low levels of thyroid hormone have high levels antithyroid antibody compared with other women who do not.

b) Aging
We all know, as we age, the immune system is no longer function as it should, leading to infection and inflammation resulting in increasing the risk of over production of antithyroid antibody.

c) Infection and inflammation
Infection or inflammation thyroid gland or other part of the body may elevate the levels of antithyroid antibody as the antibody made by protein of the immune system become abnormal and attack the thyroid gland tissues

d) Medication.
Medication use such as cholestyramine, seizure medication and antibiotic may interferes with the absorption of levothyroxine or speeds the breakdown of levothyroxine, leading to hypothyroidism resulting in increasing the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

3. Treatments

a) Selenium supplement
Since the antioxidant properties of selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals, it also helps to increase immune system in regulating the production of our body antibody including antithyroid antibody.

b) Antithyroid medication
Antithyroid medication such as desiccated thyroid, eltroxin and synthroid help to increase the the levels of thyroid function by the thyroid gland thereby, affecting the immune system resulting in lessening the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

c) Lower levels of cholesterol
Some researcher found that decreasing the levels of cholesterol in the blood stream may help to reduce the risk of hypothyroidism thereby, reducing the risk of elevating the levels of antithyroid antibody

4. Side effects of the medication

a) Heart palpitations.
b) Nervousness.
c) Insomnia.
d) Shaking
e) Too much weight loss.
f) Osteoporosis if it is taken for a long time
g) Etc.

Monoclonal Antibodies – For The Treatment Of Various Diseases

Monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers. They are mainly involved in immunotherapy. Clinical study is conducting on various monoclonal antibodies and other related proteins. Many of these antibodies are being approved for diseases like inflammation and cancer. A lot of researches are conducting to create monoclonal antibodies that are able to cure various diseases.

Some of the diseases cured by these antibodies include:

• Various types of cancers
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Tumors
• Multiple sclerosis
• Lymphoma

What Is Antibody Screening and Phage Display?

Antibody screening is the process used for identifying productive cell lines. This will help to minimize the cost of downstream processing steps. Early identification of productive cell lines will enhance the success in scale up activities. Phage display screening process is mainly used for the identifying high affinity antibodies or peptides. Following are some of the important uses of phage display:

• Used for screening protein interaction
• Help to analyze the mechanism or functioning of a protein
• One of the important techniques used in protein engineering.
• Considered as a tool in medicine or drug discovery
• Help to determine tumor antigens

Function of Antibodies

The immune system of our body is capable of generating certain antibodies. These antibodies will attach foreign substances called antigens and neutralize or destroy them. If our body is exposed to a bacteria or virus, then it will get rid of infection by producing antibodies. Antibodies are considered as the natural defensive substances. They are generally produced by the B cell of the immune system. They help in the recognition of foreign antibodies and then stimulate immune response to them. Antigen presenting cells are involved in adaptive immune response.

Important Medications Using Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies can be used in different forms of therapy. They are used for blocking certain cell receptors and also for destroying malignant tumor cells. There are also variations within the treatment procedures. These types of treatment mainly include medications like Bexxar, Herceptin and Rituxan. Bexxar contains a radioactive iodine molecule and so it does not have a naked form. This medicine has some negative effects like fever, shakes or chills. Medication involving Herceptin is specific for destroying cancer cells in the breast. Treatment procedure that involves Rituxan is very much effective in treating various types of lymphomas, especially Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Various Aspects of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

Monoclonal antibody therapy is quite effective and safe for certain patients. This treatment is not suitable for routine clinical setting because it have to be tailored to each individual patient. This technology is effective in creating antibodies against certain antigens present on the tumor surfaces. These are laboratory produced substances which are able to produce anti-tumor effects. They have been used with radioactive particles or toxins for killing cells. They are mainly used for binding molecule called tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TNF is the main cause of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Monoclonal proteins called Remicade and Humira are TNF inhibitors.

Sclerostin Antibody – Bone Overgrowth From Mutations

Sclerostin antibody Sclerostin is a secreted glycoprotein with a protein sequence similar to the bone morphogenic protein antagonist family. The protein is encoded by the SOST gene in humans. It is produced by the osteocyte and down regulates osteoblastic bone formation.

Recently, sclerostin has been implicated in the inhibition of Wnt signaling leading to attenuated bone formation and growth, acting as a stop signal to decrease bone formation by osteoblasts. Mutations in sclerostin are a result from early stop signals during protein production, leading to uninhibited Wnt signaling and bone overgrowth. The mutations in this process can lead to a range of diseases, such as type II diabetes, breast and prostate cancer.

Production of this protein is inhibited by parathyroid hormone, leading to enhanced release of the calcium from the large reservoir contained in the bones, indirectly stimulating bone resorption by osteoclasts, and various other cytokines. Production of this protein is stimulated by calcitonin, a hormone which acts to reduce blood calcium levels that acts in opposition to the parathyroid hormone.

Bone remodelling is the process by which the adult skeleton is continually renewed through the highly coordinated activity of three types of cells, which are osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Disruptions in signalling among these cells and alterations in their activity have been associated with skeletal diseases such as ‘van Buchem disease’.

Mutations in the sclerostin gene are associated with the autosomal-recessive disorder called sclerosteosis, in addition to other disorders characterized by bone overgrowth. Sclerosteosis is a rare disorder characterized by bone over growth primarily in the skull, mandible and long, tubular bones. Individual affected with this homozygous disorder have no detectable levels of circulating sclerostin. However, heterozygous individuals for the mutations express the normal phenotype and normal lifespan, with dense bones and a low risk for fracture. This observation has led to the development of a novel strategy to emulate the heterozygous mutational state as an effective treatment for bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis.

Sclerostin is the subject of key research into both bone overgrowth and bone loss. As Sclerostin antibody could potentially increase bone formation significantly without effecting bone resorption and enhance bone strength. Thus, sclerostin antibody can potentially alleviate osteoporosis disease, this occurs when bones become fragile and more likely to fracture.

This has been established in numerous clinical trials in rats, monkeys, and in humans. It has been recognized that the absence of the sclerostin protein leads to bone overgrowth. Whereas an excess amount of sclerostin leads to bone loss and reduced bone strength. This was proved in various trials, for instance the trial on a six month old female rats was a success. Once the sclerostin antibody was administered, it quickly created an increase in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. For the human clinical trials, it was a success in healthy men and postmenopausal women (72 targets), as the antibody was tolerated well, which was the palpable primary goal. Additionally, the targets had augmented bone density for hip fractures and in their spine. Methods to increase bone in humans have long been sought. The bone formation axis controlled by sclerostin may provide an important new strategy to accomplish this. Thus, Sclerostin asserts itself as a prime therapeutic target to address bone disorders. The modification of its activity or expression offers an exciting possibility for the development of new drugs for the treatment of disorders associated with bone loss.

This antibody is for research use only and can be used on the following applications, WB (western blot), IHC-P(immunohistochemistry), and P-ELISA.

Overcome Infertility – Treating Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome in Conventional Perspective

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Anti phospholipid antibody is lupuslike syndrome and is defined as a condition which causes blood clotting in the arteries or veins including Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolopin antibody. Some women may have anti phospholipid antibody but does show any symptom of immune antibody disorder.

2. How anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome affects fertility
a) Nutrient deficiency
As the syndrome progress, it causes blood thicken that interferes with function of blood in transportation nutrients to ovaries and uterine lining, making difficult for fertility and causing miscarriage.

b) Placenta
Some researchers believe that anti-phospholipid antibody may causes microscopic blood clot in
the blood vessels in the placenta, leading to miscarriage and poor fetus growth.

c) Recurrent pregnancy loss
Study show that women who have anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome and sufer loss of pregnancy will like to sufer again, if pregnancy does occur.

3. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants, it helps to prevent the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels, thereby increasing the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss. Heparin can be injected through the skin or given into a vein by intravenous infusion.

b) Prednisone
Prednisone is defined as a member of drugs called steroids, it is normally used to prevent the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also has an ability to reduce the function of anticardiolipin antibodies and the lupus anticoagulant, thereby, lessening the risk of blood clot and increasing the chance of fertility.

c) Low of asprin
Sometime low dose of aspirin may be added to prenisone or heparin to increase the function of the medication in preventing blood clot, but aspirin is unlikely to be used alone as a medication in anticoagulation.