TGF Beta 1 Antibody – Controlling Many Cellular Functions

TGF beta 1 antibody – Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) beta 1, also known as anti-Camurati Engelmann disease antibody, is a polypeptide member of the Transforming growth factor beta super family of cytokines. Transforming Growth Factor 1 is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions such as controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis as well as a key role in wound healing and healthy cartilage maintenance.

The Transforming Growth Factor β 1 protein is found throughout the body and plays a role in development before birth, the formation of blood vessels, the regulation of muscle tissue and body fat development, wound healing, and immune system function. In addition, it interacts with several types of leukocytes such as T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in the control of the immune system; most of the cells this cytokine regulates also secrete it. Accordingly, a lot of cells have TGFB receptors, and the protein positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. T.G.F. β 1 is particularly abundant in tissues that make up the skeleton in addition to the extracellular matrix, highly expressed in bone and abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes.

Some T.G.F. β 1 gene mutations are acquired during a person’s lifetime and are present only in certain cells. These uninherited somatic mutations in TGF beta 1 gene cause alterations in the expression of the TGF β 1 protein and are associated with certain types of cancers as well as certain bone disorders. The altered protein expression may enhance several cancer related events such as proliferation, cell motility, and the development of new blood vessels that nourish a growing tumor. The TGF beta 1 protein is over expressed in certain types of prostate cancers. Altered Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 expression has also been found in breast, colon, lung, and bladder cancers. Additionally, research has shown that the TGF beta 1 antibody can operate as a biomarker and an analeptic target for cardiovascular disease, also known as heart disease. This means, using the TGF beta 1 antibody can help individuals that suffer from heart disease to determine the severity of their condition.

Aberrant Expression is also implicated in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease leading to joint pain, tenderness, locking and sometimes joint effusion (increased amount of intra-articular fluid). This form of arthritis is the most common and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States, and is affecting millions in both the United Kingdom and the United States.

Defects in T.G.F. β 1 are the cause of Camurati-Engelmann disease (CE); also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia 1. CE is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the diaphyses of long bones. The disease typically presents in early childhood with pain, muscular weakness and waddling gait, and in some cases other features such as exophthalmos, facial paralysis, hearing difficulties and loss of vision.

The host of TGF beta 1 antibody is a rabbit, and is for research purposes only. The tested applications are WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-Elisa.

What You Need to Know About Sperm Antibodies

20% of all cases of infertility are due to mutual infertility, and 20% due to unexplained infertility. Combined, that’s nearly half of all the cases of infertility!

If the woman is ovulating, doesn’t have blocked tubes, hormonal imbalances or other reproductive system conditions, and, the man has normal sperm parameters, what’s the problem?

Why can’t they get pregnant?

1. Presence of sperm antibodies
2. Toxic mucus
3. Food intolerances

The first test you should consider is a post-coital test. This test will show how many sperm are still alive after intercourse in the woman’s reproductive system.

If the woman has sperm antibodies in her mucus, or has overly acidic mucus due to toxin overload in the body then the sperm will not fare well and their minutes (not days) will be numbered.

Channels of elimination

You see, your body will rely on all possible channels of elimination when it comes to getting rid of toxins. They are mostly mucus and discharge producing organs such as the nose, lungs, skin, kidneys, gut, vagina and penis.

This is where detoxing comes into the picture. Each couple, regardless of whether you are infertile or not should consider detoxing before conception.

Heavy metals exposure has a detrimental impact on the immune system, especially on autoantibody production which can lead to infertility in susceptible individuals. One study found that patients with mercury allergy had more antisperm antibodies than patients without the mercury allergy. (Neuro. Endicronol. Lett. 2005)

Food intolerances and sperm antibodies

If the immune system is in overdrive (due to constant exposure to food you are intolerant to) it can adversely react to your partner’s sperm and /or fertilized egg and destroy it. This can lead to creation of antibodies to your partner’s sperm and can predispose you to miscarriages and still births.

In the case of food intolerances you will not necessarily know you’ve got one until you do a proper blood test or you simply eliminate the food from your diet and wait to see if the symptoms go away. It can take up to 3 months for the immunocomplexes (antibody and antigen sticking together) to clear from your system.

Our body is one closed circuit. Everything that enters your body: through air that you breathe, food and drinks you consume or lotions and potions you rub on your skin will affect every single cell in your body! It all ends up in your blood. Your blood carries it though kilometers of blood vessels from the biggest aorta to the tiniest capillaries barely visible to the eye. Just think about that, for a second.

And the next time you want to consume something you know is not healthy just remember the closed circuit and know that it won’t just come out without leaving any damage behind.

Sperm Antibodies in the mucus

If the woman’s mucus contains sperm antibodies, more than just a detox is required. Studies have shown that women can develop antisperm antibodies if sperm has come into contact with the mucosal or systemic immune system. This can happen if there are minor wounds in the vagina, rectum or the oral cavity. Sperm antibodies in cervical mucus cause the heads of the sperm to stick to the cervical mucus.

To treat sperm antibodies in the mucus you’ll need to use condoms for 3-6 months while the woman’s immune system is addressed with diet, nutritional supplements, herbs and other complementary medicine treatments as required.

During the 3-6 month period, because the woman didn’t come into contact with the sperm, the present antibodies to sperm will be broken down and no new ones will be produced.

This is also a very beneficial time to learn about timing your most fertile days!

Then you remove the condom and have intercourse at the most fertile time to conceive. This will not allow enough time for your body to produce new antibodies. Also after having your immune system treated and retrained during those 3-6 months it is likely that your immune system would not react again.

If the woman has sperm antibodies in her blood and not just the mucus, than just relying on the condom will not be enough and a longer immune system treatment may be required.

Men can have sperm auto antibodies

Autoimmunity results from the abnormal immune response against the body’s own tissue. Men can develop antibodies against their own sperm. This can cause the sperm to agglutinate (or stick together) or cause the tails of the sperm to stick to the cervical mucus.

Autoimmunity of any kind often derives from childhood or even earlier development in the womb. If the mother was consuming foods she was intolerant to during her pregnancy, then her antibodies influenced what type of immune system dominance the child will have.

The immune system is fascinating in that it needs to learn the ropes. Unlike the other cells in the body it intimately interacts with our environment everyday.

If you have an inflamed gut, due to a bacterial or parasitic infection or as a result of food intolerance, large molecules from food will enter the sterile environment behind the gut, through the gaps between the cells. Once they are in the area of the body they are not meant to be in, the immune system will pick them up and treat them as invading pathogens. Now that the immune system has been exposed to this substance once, it’ll produce a whole army of antibodies against this food. So now each time you eat this food, they’ll attack. Overtime this will exhaust the immune reserve, making it less robust when it comes to bacteria, viruses and cancers and more hypersensitive to its own tissue and innocuous substances such as pollen and food.

This starts a viscous cycle if the food intolerance is not picked up upon and treated naturopathically.

If as a child you were not breastfed, than you may have missed out on your mother’s antibodies and this may have predisposed you to an immune system that is overly reactive. If, on the other hand you mother has many allergies, then you can consider yourself lucky for not having been breastfed.

Also if you grew up in a super clean and sterile environment, your immune system didn’t have any bugs to learn from. Some childhood diseases and contact with dirt as a kid are very beneficial for the immune system. They teach your immune system what sort of antibodies it should be producing, so it’s less likely to attack food molecules or your own tissue.

The good news is that the immune system can be retrained in three easy steps;

1. Remove the triggers for 3-6 months or longer, depending on the severity.
2. Heal the inflammation and the mucosal surfaces, with the right nutrients and diet.
3. Treat the immune system with adequate protein intake, a clean and pure diet, nutritional supplements, probiotics and herbs. Key nutrients to consider are vitamin C, zinc, selenium, vitamins E and A (or betacarotene), omega 3, and herbs such as Panax ginseng, Echinacea, Hemidesmus, Astragalus, Withania and Saw palmetto.

In this article we looked the causes of sperm antibodies and touched on unexplained infertility as it relates to food intolerances. There are plenty of other environmental influences that can contribute to unexplained infertility. Natural fertility treatment for sperm antibodies consists of abstinence from the triggers, dietary and lifestyle adjustments and nutritional and herbal support for the immune system. Once you truly grasp the interconnectedness of all body systems you’ll understand why and how what you eat, drink and breathe can make all the difference to your fertility.

TNF Alpha Antibody – A Cell Signaling Protein

TNF alpha antibody – The TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Alpha is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory adipokine, a cell signaling protein secreted by adipose tissue, involved in systemic inflammation and stimulation of the acute phase reaction. It is is a potent lymphoid factor that exerts cytotoxic effects on a wide range of tumor cells and certain other target cells.This protein is primarily produced as a type two transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. This membrane bound form of the protein is then proteolytically cleaved into the secreted form of TNF alpha, both the secreted and membrane bound protein are biologically active. The adipokine can bind two TNF receptors. The first receptor is expressed in most tissues and can interact and be activated by both forms of the TNF protein. While, in contrast, the second TNF receptor is only found in immune cells and respond to the membrane bound form of the TNF protein.

While is can be secreted by many cells types, including CD4+ lymphocytes, natural killer cells and neurons; this adipokine is produced primarily by activated macrophages. TNF alphas primary role is the regulation of immune cells. The adipokine is also an endogenous pyrogen and is able to induce fever both directly and via stimulation of interleukin secretion, apoptotic cell death, cachexia (wasting syndrome), inflammation and tumorigenesis (carcinogenesis) and viral replication inhibition. TNF alpha has been implicated in a variety of illnesses, such as cancer, insulin resistance, and autoimmune diseases.

Tumor Necrosis Factor promotes an inflammatory response to remove harmful stimuli, which include damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens, and then begins the therapeutic process. The inflammatory response is generally in response to a foreign pathogen but in some cases, excessive inflammation may be indicative of an autoimmune disease and other disorders. Some examples of autoimmune diseases are ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton), Crohn’s disease (inflammatory bowel disease), psoriasis (lifelong condition that affects the skin), hidradenitis suppurativa (skin diseases) and asthma (known as refractory asthma, if the symptoms persist long-term).

Additionally, TNF alpha can be a gateway to provide a biological therapy to patients as it is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in many aspects of the airway pathology in asthma, and can potentially be a significant factor in refractory asthma (persistent symptoms). This is completed by inducing either an increase in resistance or a decrease in driving pressure. As a result, TNA alpha antibody can be used as a therapeutic option for patients by increasing the resistance of the autoimmune disease, which will increase airway responsiveness.

The biotechnology industry is the operation of biological processes for scientific reagents and for other scientific functions. Fundamentally, biological reagents are mechanisms that are used in biochemical analysis to assess biological processes. It can be used to produce antibodies that are used to target a particular protein target, which are known as antigens.

The host of the TNF alpha antibody is a rabbit, and it reacts withhuman, mouse and rat. The antibody can be used on the following applications, WB (western blot), and IHC-P (immunohistochemistry).

Type 2 Diabetes – Antibody Treatment to Help the Diabetic’s Cells Use Sugar

Antibodies are molecules that evolved as part of the immune system, attaching themselves to microorganisms and then presenting the microorganisms to white blood cells for destruction.

Now researchers at XOMA Corporation and the University of San Francisco in the United States are studying antibodies that attach themselves to insulin receptors in cells to help insulin to do its job. Insulin receptors have been compared to locks that are opened by insulin acting as a key. Insulin is then able to help sugar enter cells, where it can be broken down and used for energy. In Type 2 diabetes, for complex reasons, cells become resistant to insulin and sugar then stays outside the cells in the bloodstream. Blood sugar levels rise and damage blood vessels and certain organs, while muscles and some other organs are unable to produce enough energy to carry on normal healthy functions.

In February 2014, PLoS One reported improved use of sugar by cells in the presence of an antibody named XMetS. XMetS attaches itself to insulin receptors on outer cell membranes, much as other antibodies attach themselves to disease-causing microorganisms. Under the influence of this antibody, cells become better able to respond to insulin, allowing sugar molecules to enter and become fuel.

Antibody treatment is far from being tested on diabetic human beings, but the present state of knowledge shows promise. It is thought antibody therapy will not have any danger of causing hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar levels, as insulin and many oral medications can.

Antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are Y-shaped proteins produced by white cells called B plasma cells, or lymphocytes, a kind of white blood cell. Each of the two top points of the Y has a structure that attaches the antibody to another molecule, called an antigen. Antigens are usually protein molecules the body recognizes as foreign invaders. Antigens are commonly found on the surface of bacteria and viruses. When an antibody attaches itself to an antigen, the antibody’s other end can attach to a macrophage, another type of white cell, which then proceeds to eat the antigen-antibody complex. (“Macrophage” means “large eater”). Antibodies are often given in immunizations, or antigens may be given to induce the body’s own immune system to make new antibodies.

When an antibody attaches itself to an insulin receptor on a cell membrane, the receptor is playing the part of an antigen. XMetS, of course, is designed not to attract macrophages.

Antibody therapy for clinical use is years in the future, but isn’t it great to know techniques that would have been science fiction in the past are actually beginning to show promise